Journal review: Female tourism entrepreneurs in Bali, Indonesia (Tajeddini et al., 2017)


Bali is one of the most popular islands in Indonesia for tourism due to its beaches, nightlife and religious sites. Bali, the home of Indonesia's Hindu minority, is experiencing a rapid growth in tourism and hospitality businesses.

The role of women in the economy of Bali has been growing in importance for many years and enterprising women have become a significant part of the economy. It is believed that women can play an important role in promoting economic growth and development, as well as reducing poverty (Tambunan, 2006). 

In fact, a large number of hotels and galleries are owned and managed by women; according to one estimate, women own 90 percent of such establishments (Copeland & Murni, 2010). In short, female tourism entrepreneurs are a growing segment of the hospitality industry in Bali due to their involvement in food stalls and small restaurants.


This study utilized a qualitative methodology by including a series of semi-structured face-to-face interviews with female owners of small restaurants located in the Denpasar and Badung districts of Bali. Data were collected from interviews from women business owners in restaurant industry (Denpasar and Badung districts)


This research found out that female entrepreneurs can combine professional and family responsibilities as the incentive to stay with small informal businesses. This study also found out several factors that influenced them to practice entrepreneurship; these contributing factors are varied from environmental factors to their culture and heritage.

According to Balinese Hinduism and adat (traditional practices), women and men are considered to be equal (Wiratmaja, 1991).

Moreover, Suryakusuma (1991) also believes that the culture encourages women to adhere to the Five Duties of Women (Panca Dharma Wanita) which includes:

(1) being a loyal companion to the husband

(2) managing the household

(3) educating and providing guidance to children

(4) earning supplementary income as required, and

(5) being a useful member of the community.



From this research, the writer found out that the informants--female entrepreneurs benefited in multiple ways form business ownership, one of them is enhancing self-esteem. As for instances, one of the informants felt more confident by operating a tourism business.

“... After I started the business, I felt my husband appreciate me more in everything I do. I also feel that I am respected in the community.”

On the other hand, the tourism industry is highly labor-intensive and a valuable source of unskilled employment in rural areas. As a result, tourism is especially attractive to women in both the formal and informal sectors (ILO, 2011). Women work in a variety of tourism roles, as both employees and as business owners /managers. In Bali, most female tourism workers tend to earn above the minimum wage.

Reflecting upon benefits to the local economy, an informant also affirms that, 

“... Tourism significantly affects the economy of Bali and increases family welfare. In addition, tourism gives women many opportunities to grow and expand their businesses.”

This research also categorize three types of decision making of Balinese female entrepreneurs, they are: 

(1) Women who make their own decision

(2) Women make decisions after consulting with their husbands, parents, and/or relatives

(3) Husbands dominate the decision making process


A wide number of influences including Balinese gender traditions, religion, ethnicity, education attainment, and marital status combine to build the ability and willingness of women to become business owners. 

In Bali, religion and ethnicity play important roles in both the personal and professional lives of people. Strong social, religious, ethnic networks, furthermore, often provide important financial and moral support for women who start their own businesses.


In a nutshell, encouraging women to own and manage their own businesses can promote economic growth and development as well as increasing the wellbeing of specific women and their families (Minniti & Nardone, 2008), reflecting the vision of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (2005) to promote gender equality and empower women..


Tajeddini, et. al. (2018). Female tourism entrepreneurs in Bali, Indonesia. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 31(2017), 51-58.


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Artikel ini dipublikasikan pada laman | 20 Januari 2021